In healthy people, the spine is stable and it takes a lot of force to cause an injury. The typical causes include car accidents - often resulting in whiplash injury of the cervical spine, motorbike and bicycle accidents, diving head-first into open water and falls from a significant height, for example from a ladder, sports and physical violence.
In osteoporosis, multiple vertebral fractures can sometimes occur. Vertebral fractures can develop secondary to metastatic disease.
First of all, an accurate diagnostic work-up needs to be carried out in order to classify the severity and localisation of the vertebral fracture. Treatment varies from rest and physiotherapy to interventions such as stabilisation, vertebral body replacement or kyphoplasty, including cage implantation.